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Running iqunload in migration mode (-au) starts iqunlspt and iqsrv16.

iqunlspt is a self-contained subset of the SAP IQ 12.7 (ESD #5) database engine. It runs as a background process and provides support for legacy database unloads. iqunlspt starts on your legacy database with these options as defaults:
iqunlspt -iqnotemp 100 -iqro 1 -c 48MB -gc 20 -gd
all -gk all -gl all -gm 1 -gu all -ti 4400 -x shmem .
If your database requires special switches or memory setting, iqunlspt accepts additional startup arguments. See the Utility Guide.

Default cache settings are sufficient for most migrations. At migration, data queries execute against the system catalogs, not IQ data, so the iqunlspt engine needs lower cache levels than complex queries or multiple concurrent users. The amount of time required to start the legacy database is the same as to start iqunlspt. This time is included in the iqunload startup time.

iqunload starts iqsrv16 with these options:
iqsrv16 -gp 4096 -c 40p -gc 20 -gd all -gk all -gl all
-gm 1 -gu all -qi -qs -ti 4400 
iqsrv16 also includes the -n parameter followed by a special randomly generated server name. The -c 40p setting provides a larger cache for the catalog store, allowing the server engine to execute many schema DDL statements. Both server start commands use the default values for -iqmc and -iqtc. If the legacy server requires larger startup values, use the -c switch to increase the server cache memory.