To load data into your SAP System, you can use the standard techniques BAPIs, batch input or direct input:
Business Application Programming Interfaces (BAPIs) are standardized programming interfaces that provide external access to SAP business processes and data.
BAPIs are defined in the Business Object Repository (BOR) as methods of SAP business objects or SAP interface types. BAPIs enable an object-oriented access to SAP application components.
BAPIs are implemented and stored as RFC-enabled function modules in the Function Builder of the ABAP Workbench.
For more information about BAPIs, see the
When using BAPIs as interfaces to the SAP System, the Workbench uses the same technology as used with permanent data transfer via ALE between SAP Systems or between SAP Systems and non-SAP systems. The data to be loaded must be in IDoc format (seeCreating Example Files and Analyzing Structures). The IDoc numbers in the file must be unique.
When the task is started, the IDocs from the specified input files are read and transferred to the BAPI.
Note the following:
If more than one application server is assigned to the server group, you have to make sure that the files can be accessed with the specified path from each of these servers.
If errors occur during loading (and the BAPI can therefore not process certain objects), the corresponding error message is recorded in the log of the run.
This means that the original input files are deleted if the run is continued, even if you did not choose the Delete input files after processing option.
Loading using the program type IDoc is essentially the same as loading using BAPIs.
The only difference is that ALE inbound processing and the Idoc type are not generated from a BAPI but instead have to be programmed by the relevant application itself.
Batch input is a standard technique for transferring large sets of data into the SAP System. The transaction flow is simulated and the data is transferred as if it were entered online. The advantage of this is that all relevant checks of the transaction are executed, thereby ensuring that the data is consistent.
The batch input process is divided into two steps:
The Data Transfer Workbench only executes step 1.
The majority of SAP standard data transfer programs use the batch input technique. The data transfer program creates a batch input session which is processed later. Batch input sessions can be processed in various ways:
You should process batch input sessions in the foreground or using the error display if you want to test the data transfer. If you want to execute the data transfer or test its performance, process the sessions in the background.
For more information, see the Basis documentation on
With direct input, data from the data transfer file undergoes the same checks as with the online transaction and is then transferred directly into the SAP System. The database is updated directly with the transferred data.
For more information, see the relevant program documentation.
There are two types of direct input programs:
There are two ways to trigger direct input:
If you are working with test data, start the direct input directly. For the final data transfer, SAP strongly recommends that you use Transaction BMVO.
Theses programs always provide error handling.
Define the following attributes, using the F4 input help and F1 field help:
Name of a registered program for this program type
You can only specify a variant with programs that are started directly.
Note that with background processing, the input file cannot be stored on the presentation server. Access to presentation server files is only possible when you are working online.
For more information about direct input, see
Variants cannot be specified for direct input programs that only enable error handling when they are called from the Direct Input Monitor (transaction BMV0). This is because the Direct Input Monitor is interactive and runs with tasks of this kind cannot be started in the background.