Show TOC

StructuresLocate this document in the navigation structure


Objects that appear in the Query Designer and can be defined freely.

A structure forms the basic framework of the axes in a table (rows or columns). It consists of structural components. We differentiate between key figure structures and characteristic structures.

Structural components of key figure structures are always based on the key figure selections (basic key figures, restricted key figures, and calculated key figures). Characteristic structural components cannot contain key figure selections.

The set up of the structure determines the sequence and number of key figures or characteristic values in the columns and rows of the query. You can navigate through the structure in the executed query and set filters for it.

If you are using two structures (for example, a key figure structure in the columns and a characteristic structure in the rows), a table with fixed cell definitions is created.


You have to use two structures as a prerequisite for defining exception cells. You can override the value of cell values created implicitly at the intersection of two structural components. SeeDefining Exception Cells


Structures and their structural components are complex objects. Structural components can beformulas orselections.


In key figure structures, each selection structural component has to consist of one key figure selection along with possible characteristic selections.

Within a query definition you can use either no structures or a maximum of two structures. Of these, only one can be a key figure structure.

You can combine structures freely with other characteristics on the axes.

Key Figure Structure

A structure appears in the Query Designer automatically if you move a key figure from the InfoProvider screen area into the rows or columns of the query definition. The structure that the system creates automatically is identified by the symbol and contains the default name Key Figures as a proposal.

You can change this default name.

  1. Select the structure. Thestructure properties is shown in the properties screen area.
  2. Change the name if necessary, and save your entries.

    You can also change the name in the structure directly. Select the structure and click on the text again. The text appears in a white field and can be changed here directly.

For more information, seeStructure Element Texts and their Language-Dependency.


Note the following when using key figures in a query:

  • Key figures in the Rows or Columns are always a component of a structure.

    If you place a single key figure in the Filter directory of the query definition, the key figure is not a structural component. In this case, you can still use up to two characteristic structures in the rows or columns.

  • You can use key figures in a query in only one structure.
  • Each structural component of a key figure structure must contain a key figure.

Characteristic Structure

If you want to use a structure in the query with several characteristic values, you first have to create a structure and then insert the required characteristic values.

  1. Use the right mouse button to choose New Structure from the context menu in the columns or rows directory. The default name for the structure is Structure. You can change this default name. See above under Key Figure Structure.
  2. Drag the required characteristic values from the InfoProvider screen area into the structure using drag and drop.

Although a key figure has to be available in the form of a structure for the query, the use of a characteristic structure is optional. The difference between a characteristic structure and the use of characteristics on an axis is that with the characteristic structure, you have already specified the number and sequence of the characteristic values in the query definition. If you use a characteristic on an axis, all posted characteristic values for the characteristic are displayed in the query. You can restrict the selection of specific characteristic values by setting a filter.

Special Features when Using Two Structures

Note that when you use two structures, you can include a characteristic in only one of the two structural components of a selection structural component.


If you have selected the Fiscal Year characteristic in a structure element in the one structure, you cannot use the Fiscal Year characteristic as a selection in the other structure.

Hierarchical Display of Structures

You can arrange the structural components in a structure hierarchically.

Use the right mouse button to choose Paste as Child for the structural components from the context menu. You can select one or more structural component to subordinate them to the structural component above the selection. The hierarchical relationship of the structural components is displayed in the executed query similar to a presentation hierarchy. You can expand and collapse the nodes.

Arranging the Structural Components

You determine the sequence of the structural components when you add a key figure or characteristic to the structure below another. You can change the sequence later by selecting the structural component and using drag and drop to move it up or down to the required position.

Copying Structural Components

The components of key figure structures often contain very complex objects that are made up of formulas or selections. If you want to reuse the definition of a structural component within a structure, you can copy the structural component, paste it into the structure and continue to work with it. This enables you to create similarly structured structural components quickly and easily.


For example, if you want to use the formula for a calculated key figure (K1) in another calculated key figure (K2), you can copy K1 and continue to build the formula in K2.

From the context menu of the structural component, choose Copy and from the context menu of the structure, choose Insert. You can also copy structural components using temporary storage locations (Ctrl-C, Ctrl-V).

Saving Structures for Reuse

You can use structures in several different queries. You have to save them in the InfoProvider to reuse them. These structures are then called reusable structures. For more information, seeCreating Reusable Structures.


Considered abstractly, you can think of a structure as a characteristic. However, the following differences exist between a characteristic and a structure:

  • Structural components can be complex objects (selections, formulas…) while characteristic values are atomic values.
  • You cannot aggregate structures. For a characteristic, you can determine whether it can be aggregated or not. If a characteristic can be aggregated, the sum of the characteristic values is created automatically. Structural components cannot create sums.
  • If a characteristic is in the drilldown, all posted characteristic values are displayed. Characteristic values that do not include posted values are not displayed. If a structural component does not include posted values, then the structural component is always displayed, and the respective cells for this structural component are empty and have no numbers.

The number of structural components in a structure is restricted to 999.


Plan/Actual Comparison (= Key Figure Structure)

Time Structure (= Characteristic Structure)

Creating a Query with Two Structures

Key figure structure in the rows and characteristic structure in the columns: