Analysis authorizations are required of all users that want to display data from authorization-relevant characteristics or navigation attributes in a query. These types of authorizations are not based on the standard authorization concept of SAP. Instead, they use their own concept that takes the features of reporting and analysis in BW into consideration. As a result of the distribution of queries using BEx Broadcaster and publication of queries to the portal, more and more users can access query data. With the special BW authorization concept for displaying query data, you can far better protect especially critical data.
Only when the user has been assigned the appropriate authorizations can he/she define and execute a query or navigate in a existing query. Analysis authorizations are checked in the dialog for opening a query. Furthermore, when a query is opened, the authorizations for the individual objects are checked.
See also the detailed documentation in Analysis Authorizations.