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Processing Statements for Internal Tables →
COLLECT wa INTO itab [result].
This statement inserts the content of a work area wa either as a single row
in an internal table itab or adds the values of its numeric components to the corresponding values of existing rows with the same
primary table key. wa is a
functional operand position.
result can be used to set a reference to the inserted or changed row in the form of a field symbol or data reference.
Prerequisite for the use of this statement is that wa is
compatible with the row type of itab. All components that are not part of the primary table key must have a
numeric data type.
The table is scanned for a row with the same primary key as follows:
In standard tables that
are filled using COLLECT only, the entry is determined by a temporary hash
administrator. The workload is independent of the number of entries in the table. The hash administrator
is temporary and is generally invalidated when the table is accessed to be changed. If COLLECT
statements are specified after an invalidation, a linear search of all table rows is performed. The workload for this search increases in a linear fashion in relation to the number of entries.
In sorted tables, the
entry is determined using a binary search. The workload has a logarithmic relationship to the number of entries in the table.
In hashed tables, the entry is determined using the hash administrator of the table and is always independent of the number of table entries.
If no row is found with an identical primary key, a row is inserted as described below and filled with the content of wa:
In standard tables, the row is appended as the last row of the primary table index.
In sorted tables, the new row is inserted in the sort order of the internal table in accordance with its key values, and the primary table index of the subsequent rows is increased by 1.
In hashed tables, the new row is inserted into the internal table by the hash administrator, in accordance with its key values.
If the internal table already contains one or more rows with an identical primary key, those values
of the components of work area wa that are not part of the key are added
to the corresponding components of the uppermost existing row (in the case of index tables, this is the row with the lowest primary table index).
A non-handleable exception is raised if a duplicate entry in a unique
secondary table key is produced when the statement COLLECT is executed.
If the primary table key of a standard table is empty,
all components of the row type must be numeric and the first row of the internal table is always compressed. If the system can statically detect this, the syntax check displays a warning that can be hidden using a
The statement COLLECT sets sy-tabix for
standard tables and
sorted tables to the row number of the inserted or existing row in the primary table index, and for
hashed tables to the value 0.
Do not fill standard tables with collections of rows
COLLECT should only be used if internal tables are to be created that are
genuinely unique or compressed. In this case, COLLECT can greatly benefit
performance. If uniqueness or compression are not required, or the uniqueness is guaranteed for other
reasons, the statement INSERT should be used instead.
The statement COLLECT is not suitable for standard tables and should no longer
be used for them. COLLECT can be used for sorted tables and hashed tables
without any problems since these, unlike standard tables, always have a separate, stable key administration
that can be utilized by COLLECT. When used for sorted tables, these should
have a unique primary key or the table should be filled with COLLECT only. For hashed tables, all prerequisites are met automatically.
If a standard table is still filled using COLLECT, it should not be edited
using any other statement, with the exception of MODIFY.
If the latter is used with the addition TRANSPORTING, no primary key fields
can be changed. This is the only way to ensure that the table entries are always unique and compressed,
and that the statement COLLECT runs efficiently. The function module
ABL_TABLE_HASH_STATE can be used to check whether a standard table is suitable for editing using COLLECT.
With the exception, an obsolete short form is possible where wa INTO can be omitted if the internal table has a
header line itab with the same name. The statement then uses the header line as the work area implicitly.
Compressed insertion of data from the database table sflight into the internal
table seats_tab. The rows in which the primary key components carrid
and connid are identical are compressed by adding the number of occupied seats to the numeric component seatsocc.
DATA: BEGIN OF seats,
carrid TYPE sflight-carrid,
connid TYPE sflight-connid,
seatsocc TYPE sflight-seatsocc,
END OF seats.
DATA seats_tab LIKE HASHED TABLE OF seats
WITH UNIQUE KEY carrid connid.
SELECT carrid, connid, seatsocc
COLLECT seats INTO seats_tab.
Cause: Overflow in integer field when creating totals
Runtime Error: COLLECT_OVERFLOW
Cause: Overflow in type p field when creating totals
Runtime Error: COLLECT_OVERFLOW_TYPE_P
COLLECT - result
Cause: COLLECT used for non-numeric fields
Runtime Error: TABLE_COLLECT_CHAR_IN_FUNCTION
Cause: Memory area violated when TABLES parameter accessed
Runtime Error: ITAB_STRUC_ACCESS_VIOLATION