Object documentationBusiness Transaction

 

Independent but logically connected business event that implies a change in value or quantity, or an event. The system depicts a business transaction by a posting in accounting as one whole entity that can be reversed. It must be possible to uniquely identify the representation of a business transaction in accounting.

 

With this object, you can classify documents for document splitting in new General Ledger Accounting.

Mixing different business processes posted with the same document type is not supported in document splitting. You have to post each business transaction used with a separate document type.

Structure

A business transaction in document splitting is always linked with a business transaction variant that defines which item categories are available in the business transaction and in the document splitting rules assigned.

The business transactions and the item categories available in a business transaction are predefined in document splitting. This means that, in business transaction customer invoice (0200), for example, you cannot use the item categories vendor (03000) or cash discount clearing (01300).

You cannot create your own business transactions. However, you can define customer business transaction variants for a business transaction, and further restrict the item categories available for the business transaction. You have to define customer document splitting rules for customer business transaction variants. This enables you to adapt the standard delivery to your particular requirements.

A business transaction can cover multiple business processes. Each business process uses item categories that are to be split and basis item categories that the system can use to derive the account assignments. The basis item categories must be defined in the document splitting rule for the business transaction.

The following table gives for each available business transaction the business processes that are covered by the document splitting rules in the standard document splitting method:

Available Business Transactions

Business Transaction

Description

Business Processes in Standard Document Splitting Method

0000

Unspecified Posting

All business processes that have complete account assignments and that therefore do not need to be split (for example, postings from Controlling (CO) or Materials Management (MM)). Company code clearing is the only exception, provided this is created in the posting interface (for example, travel expense reports that already contain the clearing lines)

0100

Transfer Posting from P&L Account to B/S Account

Accruals postings for closings (see also Clearing and Posting Specific to Ledger Groups)

0200

Customer Invoice

Item category customer (02000) is set up as leading item for cross-company code postings, which means that the customer includes all account assignments of the offsetting items.

0300

Vendor Invoice

  • Invoice, including cash discount clearing for invoices posted net

  • Credit Memo

  • Integrated Asset Acquisition (posted gross/net, see also Graphic: Gross/Net Posting)

  • Invoice Reductions from Logistics Invoice Verification

  • Retention Amounts from Logistics Invoice Verification

0400

Bank Account Statement

0500

Advance tax return (regular tax burden)

Advance return for tax on sales/purchases, meaning credit tax account and transfer to tax payable account (see also Posting the Tax Payable)

See SAP Note 889404Information published on SAP site.

The tax on sales and purchases is assigned within the program; the item category to be processed, tax on sales and purchases (05100), has only been defined for reasons of downwards compatibility.

0600

Goods receipt for purchase orders

Dedicated business transactions for which cross-company code projections are to be carried out (which requires the leading item to be defined in the document splitting rule); compare the business transaction Unspecified Posting

1000

Payment

  • Vendor/customer payment (with cash discount)

  • Down payment

  • Payment on account

    In the PSM_FA_CI business function, a standard account assignment with constant OPACC has been defined for the public sector in the document splitting rule for the item categories to be processed, customer (02000) and vendor (03000).

  • Cross-company code payment (with cash discount), for example, for a centrally paying company code

1010

Clearing transactions (account maintenance)

  • Write Off Differences

  • Transfer Posting

1020

Reset Cleared Items

Not used in document splitting in new General Ledger Accounting

This business transaction is used in classic General Ledger Accounting with document splitting for special purpose Ledgers (FI-SL) to reset a zero clearing. In document splitting within new General Ledger Accounting, passive document splitting resets clearing.

For a detailed list of item categories available for each business transaction, go to Customizing for Document Splitting and choose Start of the navigation path Extended Document Splitting Next navigation step Define Business Transaction Variants End of the navigation path. In the standard delivery, the standard business transaction variant (variante 0001 Standard) has been defined for each business transaction. The standard business transaction variants contain all of the item categories available in the relevant business transaction.

If you create a new business transaction variant, the system automatically transfers the item categories and the basic settings of the business transaction. You can prohibit individual item categories or set them as mandatory (this means, for example, that a customer invoice must contain a customer because the system uses the customer line item to derive the leading company code). You can also define that an item category can only occur once in the business transaction.

When posting, the system checks whether the item categories are valid for the business transaction.

Integration

Document splitting is based on the unique assignment of document types to business transactions and business transaction variants as well as on the assignment of item categories to the accounts. You make these assignments as follows:

  • You assign the item categories to the accounts in Customizing for Document Splitting under Start of the navigation path Classify G/L Accounts for Document Splitting End of the navigation path.

  • You assign the document types to the business transactions and business transaction variants in Customizing for Document Splitting under Start of the navigation path Classify Document Types for Document Splitting End of the navigation path.