Logical databases are special ABAP programs that retrieve data and make it available to application programs. The most common use of logical databases is still to read data from database tables bylinking them to executable ABAP programs.
However, from Release 4.5A, it has also been possible to call logical databases using the function module LDB_PROCESS. This allows you to call several logical databases from any ABAP program, nested in any way. It is also possible to call a logical database more than once in a program, if it has been programmed to allow this. This is particularly useful for programs with type 1.
Logical databases containOpen SQL statements that read data from the database. You do not therefore need to use SQL in your own programs. The logical database reads the program, stores them in the program if necessary, and then passes them line by line to the application program or the function module LDB_PROCESS using an interface work area.
Logical Databases - Views of Data
A logical database provides a particular view of database tables in the R/3 System. It is always worth using logical databases if the structure of the data that you want to read corresponds to a view available through a logical database.
The data structure in a logical database is hierarchical. Many tables in the R/3 System are linked to each other using foreign key relationships. Some of these dependencies form tree-like hierarchical structures. Logical databases read data from database tables that are part of these structures.
The diagram illustrates how the R/3 System might represent the structure of a company. A logical database can read the lines of these tables one after the other into an executable program in a sequence which is normally defined by the hierarchical structure. The term logical database is sometimes used to mean not only the program itself, but also the data that it can procure.
Tasks of Logical Databases
As well as allowing you to read data from the database, logical databases also allow you to program other tasks centrally, making your application programs less complicated. They can be used for the following tasks:
The individual programs do not then need to know the exact structure of the relevant database tables (and especially not their foreign key relationships). Instead, they can rely on the logical database to read the database entries in the right order during the GET event.
Logical databases have a built-in selection screen. Therefore, all of the programs that use the logical database have the same user interface.
Authorization checks for central and sensitive data can be programmed centrally in the database to prevent them from being bypassed by simple application programs.
If you want to improve response times, logical databases permit you to take a number of measures to achieve this (for example, using joins instead of nested SELECT statements). These become immediately effective in all of the application programs concerned and save you from having to modify their source code.